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Deepdub A-Z glossary

Here you’ll find all of the most common terms and definitions in the dubbing and localization industry, as well as those specific to Deepdub.

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A

Adaptation

Modifying a film or television program's dialog and audio elements to fit the language and cultural context of a different audience.

Adapters

Professionals who adapt the script from one language into another for the purpose of dubbing.

Adjustment

Any guidance that a director gives to the actor to change their performance.

Ad-lib

Improvised lines that don’t feature in the original script.

ADR (Automated Dialog Replacement)

The process of re-recording dialog by the original actor after the filming process to improve audio quality or reflect dialog changes.

AFTRA (American Federation of Television and Radio Artists)

A union for radio and TV actors and voice actors.

ANNC

Stands for “announcer”.

Arc

The voice actor’s interpretation of the emotional parts of the storyline.

Audio

Transmission, reception or reproduction of sound.

Audiobook

A recording of the contents of a book read aloud.

Audio layback

The process of creating a final video in your desired target language, with a newly recorded voiceover embedded into it.

Audio splitting

The process of dividing an audio track into separate segments or clips.

Audition

A trial performance for voice talent where to display their skills, usually non-paid.

Automated transcription

Converting spoken language into written text using specialized software.

Availability

The times at which a voice actor is available for a session.

ASR

Automatic Speech Recognition. It is a technology that converts spoken language into written text.

B

Back translation

Translating content back to the original language to ensure accuracy and consistency.

Background

Also called background noise, this is placed behind a voice-over and is usually made up of music or sound effects.

Bandwidth

The most common way to measure data transmission, bandwidth indicates how many bits can be transferred to or from a device in one second.

Beat

A thought that makes a speaker pause before they keep speaking.

Beat sync

A technique used to match the rhythm and timing of the original speech with the dubbed audio.

Bed

The music or sound effects behind or under an announcer’s voice.

Bleed

Noise from headphones that’s picked up by a microphone.

Billboard

This refers to when you highlight a certain word or phrase in the script while keeping a consistent tone during the overall performance.

Board

An audio console that an engineer uses during a recording.

Booking

A decision to hire a voice actor for a session.

Boom

An overhead mic stand.

Booth

The enclosed, soundproof room in which a voice talent usually records.

Break up

When vocal audio is distorted or unstable, this is usually caused by equipment problems or phone line interference.

Breaks

Notations in a transcription that indicate a pause.

Broadcasting

Distribution of audio or video, usually through traditional TV or radio channels.

Bump

To remove someone from a casting list, or add more studio time to a session.

Butt-cut

When sound files are joined up tightly.

Button

A single word, phrase or sentence at the end of a spot that clinches the whole meaning of the piece.

Buy

Also known as a keeper, this is when the best part of the VO is selected.

Buy-out

A one-time fee paid that’s paid for voice-over services on a commercial.

Byte

A unit of measurement for memory storage.

C

Closed captioning

Text displayed on a television, video screen, or other visual display to provide additional or interpretive information.

Character voice

The distinct style or manner of speaking or expression that differentiates one character from another

Copy

The script.

Cadence

How breaks are placed between words.

Callback

A second audition after passing the first.

Casting

A pre-production process to select actors for a recorded performance.

Character

The person an actor is cast as in a spot.

Class A

National network commercial usage.

Cold read

An audition in which an actor is given very little or no time to rehearse.

Compression

A sound technique that reduces the dynamic range of an actor’s voice.

Console

A large piece of equipment where the audio engineer records and mixes a voice-over.

Creative Director

The person at the ad agency who is responsible for the work of the creative teams.

Cross talk

When talking into one microphone is picked up by another mic.

Cue

An electronic or physical signal given to an actor to start performing.

Cue up

Lining up an actor’s voice to the visuals or music.

Cut

A specific segment of the voice-over recording, usually referred to during editing.

Cutting through

When a voice is not drowned out by music and sound effects.

D

Dialog isolation

Separating spoken dialog from other audio elements in a track, like background noise, music, and sound effects.

Dubbing

The process of replacing the original dialog in a film or television program with dialog in another language.

Director

The person responsible for overseeing the voice actor, audio engineer, music composer, and sound designer.

Dead air

The silence when a voiceover pause is too long.

De-esser

A piece of equipment used to remove excess sibilance (the “s” sound) of spoken text.

Digital recording

A process where sound is converted into numbers and stored on a DAT or computer hard drive.

Distortion

Fuzziness in the sound quality of a recorded piece.

E

End-to-end service

The comprehensive creation of dubbed or localized content from the creation of the script to final post-production services.

Emotional-Text-to-Speech

Deepdub’s proprietary technology that allows for the creation of human-sounding voices from text at a large scale and with full emotional support – and it comes with commercial rights built in.

Emotion bank

Assigning unique emotions to each voice for a nuanced range, ensuring accurate and human-like dubbing experiences.

Emotional speech synthesis

AI-generated speech that conveys specific emotional characteristics for a more natural and expressive output.

Emotion mapping

The process of identifying and understanding the range and progression of emotions of a character in a story.

Echo

A repetition of sound.

Editing

Removal, addition or re-arrangement of recorded material.

Engineer

The person who operates audio equipment during a recording session.

Equalization

Also known as EQ, it is used to stress certain frequencies.

F

FAST channel

Free Ad-supported Streaming TV and includes any channels that stream linear programs without viewers needing to pay for a subscription, like YouTube.

Foley

Reproduction of everyday sound effects added to films, videos, or other media in post-production.

Full lip sync

meticulous synchronization of a character's lip movements with the spoken dialog.

FCC

The Federal Communications Commission.

Fade

To increase or decrease the volume of sound.

Feedback

A distorted, high-pitched sound, usually coming from headphones or speakers.

Filter

An item that engineers put on a mic to make an actor sound clearer.

Fluctuation

How often a voice goes up or down, also known as inflection.

Franchised

Talent agents who adopt SAG/AFTRA guidelines.

G

GDPR

General Data Protection Regulation, a comprehensive data protection law that came into effect in the European Union (EU) on May 25, 2018.

Generative AI

A type of artificial intelligence that can generate new content, like text, images, music, or voices.

General transcription

Converting spoken language into written text without necessarily adhering to the strict rules of verbatim transcription.

Globalization

Preparing audiovisual content, like movies, TV shows, or video games, for international markets.

Gain

The volume of a voice, or a fader on the console.

Gobos

Portable partitions positioned around the actor to absorb or reflect sound, or to isolate the actor from another on-mic actor.

Glossary

A list of terms and phrases, often with definitions and translations, specific to a particular project or content type, used to ensure consistency in translation.

H

Homophones

words with the same pronunciation, like “through” and “threw”

Harmonizer

A piece of equipment designed to change the pitch of the voice, usually upward.

High-speed dub

A copy of a tape or CD made at several times normal speed.

Highs

The high-frequency sound of a voice.

Hook

Starting out on a high note on the first word of a recording to grab attention.

Hot

A phrase that describes a mic that is on.

I

Inaudible

A notation in a transcription that shows a certain part of the recording cannot be heard.

Intonation

Variation in pitch and tone of voice used during speech.

Inflection

Emphasizing a higher or lower pitch at the end of a word or phrase.

ISDN (Integrated Services for Digital Network)

Communication standards for digital transmission of voice, video, data, and other network services.

In-country review (ICR)

A key step in the process of localization, especially in the context of translating and adapting content for global markets.

In-house

A production produced for a client in their own facilities.

IVR

In phones, interactive voice response is a technology that allows a computer to detect voice and touch tones using a normal phone call.

J

Juxtaposition

Placing different elements of a scene or dialog next to each other in a way that highlights their differences or creates a particular effect.

Jack

A connector made for the insertion of a plug, commonly used for audio devices.

Jingle

A musical commercial.

K

Karaoke subtitling

A style of subtitling where the text of the lyrics is displayed in sync with the music.

KBPS

A unit of data transfer rate equal to 1,000 bits per second.

L

Lip sync

Synchronizing the movements of an actor's lips with recorded dialog in post-production, especially in dubbing.

Localization

Adapting content to suit the cultural, linguistic, and other requirements of a specific target market or region.

Languaging

Using language to construct and negotiate meaning, identity, and social relationships

Level

Reading the script into the microphone at the full volume you intend to use during the performance.

Line cue

The last part of the last line before your cue begins.

Looping

Recording or re-recording dialog for a previously filmed scene.

Lay It Down

A phrase meaning, “let’s record.”

Library music

Pre-recorded music that producers use when budget doesn’t allow original music.

Live mic

A mic that is on and can pick up everything said in the booth.

Looping

A type of voiceover where artists watch a previously recorded video and must record whenever the person on screen talks.

Lows

The low frequency of a voice.

M

M&E track (Music and Effects track)

An audio track that contains only background music and sound effects.

Multilingual dubbing

Dubbing voiceovers into many different languages.

Multilingual TTS (Text-to-Speech)

Technology that can convert written text into spoken words in multiple languages.

Master

The original recording that all dubs are made from.

Mix

The blending of voice, sound effects, music, etc.

Mixing Board

An device to combine, route, and change the level, timbre and/or dynamics of audio signals.

Modulation

Varying tone to convey a message.

Monolog

One-person copy.

Mouth noise

The clicks and pops a microphone picks up from a dry mouth.

MP3

The name of the file extension.

Multitrack

A machine capable of recording and replaying several different tracks at the same time.

N

Natural Language Processing (NLP)

AI technology that enables machines to understand, interpret, and generate human-like language.

NLS

Natural language segmentation describes the process of dividing a continuous stream of text into smaller units, such as sentences or phrases.

Neural Machine Translation (NMT)

A machine translation approach that uses neural networks to improve translation accuracy.

Non-synchronous sound

Sound that doesn’t directly correspond with on-screen actions or movements.

Narrator

Someone in a narrative who tells the story to the audience.

Non-union

A voice-over job that’s paid off the books, not through the union.

O

Overdubbing

The process of adding additional audio, such as voice or sound effects, over existing recordings.

One-tier translation

Only one round of translation.

On mic/off mic

Speaking or not speaking directly into the microphone.

Outtake

A previous take that isn’t approved and accepted.

Overlapping

When an actor starts their line a moment before another actor finishes theirs.

Over scale

Any amount paid over the minimum wage set by AFTRA or SAG.

P

Parametric TTS

Text-to-Speech systems that use parameters to control aspects of speech synthesis, allowing for customization.

Post-production

The stage in filmmaking and video production in which the team completes the work after the film's shooting or recording of the footage has ended.

Pitch matching

Adjusting one's vocal pitch to align with a reference pitch.

Phrase sync dubbing

When dubbed dialog is synchronized with the length and pacing of the original phrases or sentences, but not the exact lip movements.

Phrase match

The style of dubbing where the length of the target language recording matches exactly to the source language, but the lip movements don’t match.

Popping

A plosive sound caused by a sudden burst of air into the microphone.

Punch

To highlight a word or phrase with a notably sharp and emphatic tone.

Pace

The speed at which an actor reads copy.

Paper noise

Sound that the mic picks up as you move your script.

Phasing

When sound bounces off surfaces and causes a weird effect in the recording.

Phonemes

The small units of sound used to make words.

Pick-up

Re-recording a section of copy at a certain point.

Pick-up session

An additional session to complete the original.

Pitch

The vocal level at which a person speaks.

Playback

Listening to what has just been recorded.

Producer

The person in charge of the voice-over session.

Q

Quality assurance

A critical process that ensures the final dubbed product meets certain standards of quality and accuracy.

Quirky adaptation

An approach where the adaptation of content is done in a way that adds unique, humorous or unconventional elements.

R

Re-recording

Enhancing or redoing the audio track in post-production for better quality or to address issues.

Read

The overall performance quality of a script.

Residuals

Compensation paid to use a performance beyond the session fee or initial compensation.

Real-time

An event that takes as long as it actually takes, as opposed to high-speed.

Released

Being dropped from consideration for a voiceover job.

Resonance

The full quality of a voice created by vibrations in the mouth, throat, chest and sinus areas.

Re-use

What actors are paid when their spot is re-run.

Reverb

A variation of echo.

Room tone

The sound a room makes without anyone in it.

Rough mix

The step before the final mix.

S

Source language

The original language a film, TV show, or other content is produced in.

Speech-to-speech translation

AI-driven systems that can translate spoken language from one language to another in real-time.

Subtitling

Adding written text to a film or video that translates the spoken dialog into another language.

Synchronization (Sync)

Ensuring perfect alignment between different audio and visual elements.

Spotting

Time code specifically for subtitles.

Session

The time spent recording the voice actor.

SOT

“Sound on tape” – language or sound that is woven into the script but not spoken by the voice actor.

SAG

Screen Actors’ Guild. The union for film actors and performers.

SFX

Shorthand for sound effects. Also seen as EFX.

Scale

The minimum, established wages set by SAG and AFTRA for talent.

Sibilance

A drawn out or excessive “S” during speech.

Signatory

Someone who has signed a contract with SAG or AFTRA confirming that they’ll only work union jobs.

Signature

A specific quality of a voice that makes it unique.

Spokesperson

A voice actor hired on a repeat contractual basis to represent a product or company.

Spot

A commercial.

Stair stepping

Having the pitch rise up or down to define phrases.

Studio

Where all recording and mixing takes place.

T

Taft-Hartley

A labor law protecting an actor from having to join the union for their first job.

Take

The recording of a specific piece of voiceover copy.

Talent

A performer, entertainer or voiceover artist.

Tempo

The speed at which copy is delivered.

Time code

A digital read-out on the console referring to audiotape and videotape positions. Used in film dubbing.

Tone

A specific sound or attitude.

Target language

The language into which the original content is being translated or dubbed.

Text-to-Speech (TTS)

Technology that converts written text into spoken words using synthetic voices.

Trusted Partner Network (TPN)

A global, industry-wide film and television content protection initiative with extremely high standards of assessment.

Translation

The process of converting text from one language to another. In the context of localization, it often involves adapting cultural references and idioms.

U

Utterance

A unit of the spoken word.

Unscripted translation

Any translation that us not part of the original.

Undercutting

Dipping down a sentence and throwing a portion of it away.

Units

The number assigned by AFTRA and SAG to cities throughout the U.S.

UN style

When you keep the original voice at a low volume, overlaying it with another voice in another language.

Use fee

An additional fee paid to the performer when their spot is actually aired.

V

Voice-over (VO)

A production technique where a voice that is not part of the original content is used in a radio, television production, filmmaking, theater, or other presentations.

VOD (Video on Demand)

A kind of technology that lets viewers choose and watch video content based on their preferences and timings, rather than on a schedule.

Voice actor

A professional performer who provides the voice for characters in dubbing or voice-over projects.

Voice cloning

Creating a synthetic voice that mimics the unique characteristics of a specific individual.

Vocal tone matching

Matching the tone of a recorded piece exactly to the original.

Voice print

The vocal equivalent of fingerprints.

Voiceover coach

A teacher who specializes in improving voiceover skills in students.

Voiceover talent

A person who sells their voice as a product to be used with other media.

Voice seeker

Someone who is looking for a voice talent or voice producer.

VU meter

On the engineer’s console, it indicates the level of sound passing through the board.

W

Word Error Rate (WER)

Measures the rate at which words are incorrectly transcribed.

Whispering

Speaking at a very low volume.

Word stress

Giving particular emphasis to one specific word.

Wild recording

A VO recorded at a natural pace.

Walla

The sound of many voices talking at once, used as background sounds.

Watermark

A method to discourage unauthorized use of an audition file by adding a visible or invisible mark, indicating its temporary or sample status for audition purposes.

Wet

A voice or sound with reverb added to it.

X

XML transcription format

A way of encoding transcribed audio or video content using XML, a flexible markup language used for storing and transporting data.

Xenoglossia

Being able to speak a foreign language.

Xiphopagus

Matching closely related languages.

Y

Yaw

Speaker drift during an audio recording.

Z

Zero shot

The ability of a model to recognize and make decisions about data it has never seen during training.

Zoom in/out

Adjusting a translation for length.

Zero latency dubbing

A dubbing process where there is no perceptible delay between the original dialog and the dubbed audio.

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